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Buenas prácticas en gestión y restauración de cursos efímeros mediterráneos: resiliencia y adaptación al cambio climático
Año de Publicación: 2021
: Español
ISBN-13: 9788409329953
Tipo: LIBRO
DOI: 10.6018/editum.2900
URI: https://publicaciones.um.es/publicaciones/public/obras/ficha.seam?numero=2900&edicion=1
Financiador
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Proyecto
Pr. Est. I+D+i Orientada a los Retos Soc
Resumen

Los cursos efímeros (ramblas, rieras, cauces secos salvo en avenidas repentinas y eventuales) tienen una gran presencia en el territorio mediterráneo, donde constituyen la mayor parte de la red fluvial. Son sistemas naturales fundamentales en el ciclo hidrológico para el transporte de agua, sedimentos y nutrientes, y, por tanto, excelentes indicadores del cambio climático y global.
Su puesta en valor, el reconocimiento de su papel, de sus valores hidromorfológicos y de sus servicios ecosistémicos son totalmente necesarios para entender su grado de resiliencia y contribución a la adaptación al cambio climático. Y es muy urgente trabajar en su gestión, restauración y conservación, porque en general se encuentran sometidos a fuertes presiones y están enormemente dañados.
La presente guía alerta sobre los múltiples impactos que sufren, divulga este gran patrimonio mediterráneo, tan subestimado y poco conocido, y propone 33 buenas prácticas para su gestión y restauración. Es una guía que puede aportar ideas a las personas responsables de la gestión, pero está destinada al conjunto de la sociedad, porque el reto es muy complejo: tenemos que recuperar cursos efímeros a partir del conocimiento y la sensibilización. Y actuar con rapidez, porque ya es tarde y hasta ahora prácticamente no se ha hecho nada por respetar, proteger y recuperar estos sistemas fluviales imprescindibles de nuestro territorio. Este es nuestro reto.
 

Tabla de contenido

Justificación y objetivos

1. Fundamentos

1.1. ¿Qué es la restauración fluvial?

1.2. ¿Cómo funcionan los cursos efímeros?

1.3. Antecedentes y dificultades de gestión en cursos efímeros

2. El deterioro actual de los cursos efímeros

2.1. Presiones e impactos

2.2. Deterioro hidrogeomorfológico y ecológico

2.3. Causas y ejemplos de deterioro

- Vados y otros pasos transversales

- Caminos longitudinales en el cauce, compactación por paso de vehículos

- Cauces convertidos en carreteras y calles

- Azudes y embalses

- Presas de retención (check-dams)

- Extracciones de material aluvial, dragados, limpiezas, ampliación de la sección de desagüe, movimientos de sedimentos

- Ocupaciones del cauce y eliminación de espacio fluvial

- Escombros, basuras, residuos sólidos

- Defensas, encauzamientos, canalizaciones, recubrimiento del cauce

- Conducciones enterradas o paralelas al cauce, alcantarillas, colectores, acequias

- Modificaciones del caudal, extracciones, vertidos, desagües, flujos de retorno

- Rectificaciones de cauce, corta de meandros

- Plantaciones y cultivos en el cauce

- Pastoreo

- Invasiones de cañas

- Otras acciones y usos del territorio

3. Indicadores de resiliencia, evaluación y criterios para la gestión y restauración

3.1. Indicadores de resiliencia geomorfológica y ecológica en cursos efímeros

3.2. Diagnóstico

3.3. Principios, criterios y condicionantes para restauración y una nueva gestión en cursos efímeros

4. Buenas prácticas para la gestión y restauración de cursos efímeros

4.1. Propuesta de buenas prácticas en funcionamiento geomorfológico

- Eliminación de presas, barreras y obstáculos transversales

- Eliminación de vados y pasos sobre el cauce

- Supresión de caminos internos y cierre de accesos

- Prohibición de dragados, remociones y extracciones de material aluvial

- Recuperación de áreas afectadas por extracciones y aportación de sedimentos - en tramos con déficit

- Prohibición de actuaciones post-avenida

- Redimensionar y permeabilizar puentes, vados y vías de comunicación

- Desviar estructuras, conducciones y desagües y alejarlos del cauce

- Descanalización

- Naturalización del cauce y reconstrucción de trazados y formas fluviales

- Eliminación de plantaciones y cultivos dentro del cauce activo

4.2. Propuesta de buenas prácticas en funcionamiento ecológico

- Eliminación de cañas (Arundo donax)

- Medidas de protección de especies autóctonas

- Medidas para evitar la colonización de especies invasoras

- Creación de hábitats

- Revegetación

- Eliminación de basuras y vertidos en cauces y riberas

4.3. Propuesta de buenas prácticas en ordenación del territorio fluvial

- Naturalización de la cuenca

- Devolución al curso fluvial de su espacio natural y generación de un territorio fluvial

- Devolver la propiedad pública al territorio fluvial

- Territorio fluvial en tramos urbanos: mayor anchura, desurbanizar, cambiar usos

4.4. Propuesta de buenas prácticas en gestión hidrológica, ambiental y de riesgos

- Catalogar y oficializar todos los cursos efímeros en la red fluvial

- Incrementar las estaciones de aforo y puntos de control de la red SAIH en toda la red fluvial efímera

- Naturalización hidrológica, caudales geomórficos y funcionales

- Evaluar el estado ecológico de toda la red fluvial efímera

- Controlar y clausurar captaciones de agua subterránea en cauces efímeros

- Proteger cursos efímeros de alto valor y calidad ambiental

- Agentes fluviales para el control, vigilancia y protección

- Mejorar las condiciones de edificabilidad en zonas inunda- bles

4.5. Propuesta de buenas prácticas en evaluación, conocimiento y sensibilización

- Educación ambiental global, cambio de mentalidad y campaña de sensibilización sobre los cursos efímeros

- Estudio y denuncia de actuaciones negativas

- Participación y voluntariado

- Monitoreo y seguimiento

5 Buenas prácticas para la adaptación al cambio climático en cursos efímeros

5.1. Percepción del cambio climático y de sus impactos en cursos efímeros

5.2. Reacción de los cursos efímeros frente al impacto del cambio climático

5.3. Iniciativas y propuestas de adaptación al cambio climático

- Las buenas prácticas de gestión y restauración de los cur- sos efímeros en relación con el cambio climático

- Marco normativo e iniciativas de ámbito europeo

Conclusiones

Glosario

Referencias

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Cómo citar (APA 7th)Ollero Ojeda, A., Conesa Garcia, C., y Vidal-Abarca Gutiérrez, M. R.(Coords.). (2021). Buenas prácticas en gestión y restauración de cursos efímeros mediterráneos: resiliencia y adaptación al cambio climático. Editum. Ediciones de la Universidad de Murcia. https://doi.org/10.6018/editum.2900
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